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Aus Müller (1980), S. 215:

The South American (between 32 and 38°S, the agricultural core of Argentina, was particularly disputed steppe; many scientists contended it had originally been forest land, destroyed by Indian fires. Grass species (Stipa neesiana, Panicum sp., Paspalum sp., Bromus unioloides, Poa lanigera, Eragrostis lugens, etc.), dominate. At higher groundwater levels, Paspalum quadrifarium forms huge tufts reminiscent of the Carex clumps present in the northern hemisphere. In the southern hemisphere, this form of growth is called "tussock". As the southern latitude increases, it becomes more and more dominant (tussock grasslands; cf. Tundra Biomes, Section 5.1.8).

The relativity high precipitation in the pampa (1000 mm in the northeast, 500 mm in the southwest) is compensated for by the potentional evaporation. Shallow lakes containing soda and having no drainage and which usually dry up during the summer months, are further indications of the semi-arid climate of this steppe. "The negative water balance in the humid pampa amounts to about 100 mm, and in the most arid parts of the pampa up to 700 mm" (Walter 1970). Woody plants (Celtis spinosa) grow on these well-drained soils. The large humus zones (to 1.5 m) are reminiscent of black soils and prairie soils and show no indication of early forest vegetation.


  • Müller, Paul (1980): Biogeography. Harper & Row, Publishers, New York.

--davX Literatur 21:46, 19. Sep 2018 (CEST)

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